Since 1983 The UK Federation of Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Centres have treated over 250 patients who had been told that they had 'Chronic Fatigue Syndrome / Myalgic Encephalitis'. The response of 36 of them were reported in the J. Royal Society of Medicine in 1990. Vol 38, p 413. Thirteen responded after 20 treatments at 1.25 ata, ten at 1.5 ata, three at 1.75 ata and two at 2.0 ata. Briefly, between 50 and 80% reported improvement in fatigue, muscle pains, paraesthesiae, numbness, balance, bladder problems, speech etc. Some patients need to attend regularly to maintain their improvemments.
Q: How does oxygen help multiple sclerosis patients?
A: Multiple sclerosis is a disease in which there are multiple areas of leakage from the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord causing symptoms. Treatment should be instituted when the first area is affected, but this is not yet an objective in neurology. Vessels in the nervous system are engineered to form a barrier - the blood-brain barrier - to prevent the leakage of large molecules such as proteins because their escape causes inflammation.
The blood vessels involved in MS are actually veins and the leakage causes inflammation in the surrounding area. This is usually in the white matter, which contains vulnerable cells which form the myelin sheaths. As the damage progresses the sheaths are removed and the fibres are destroyed causing disability. Further progression is characterised by loss of the structure of the tissue and healing by scarring - known as sclerosis. Once the sclerosis has formed, recovery of the normal architecture is not possible. The key to the successful management of the established disease is to give the normal recovery mechanisms the best environment to repair the tissue before scarring takes place. Magnetic resonance scanning techniques have shown both the leakage and the oxygen deficiency created by the swelling in the areas affected in MS. The object of giving a concentrated dose of oxygen is to restore the level of oxygen in the affected area to normal and interrupt the progression to scar formation.
Oxygen is necessary, not only for all metabolism, but also for the regulation of many aspects of blood vessel and blood cell function. The blood-brain barrier requires energy and oxygen to maintain its integrity. Giving more oxygen constricts the diameter of blood vessels and yet paradoxically improves the transport of oxygen to the tissues. Oxygen also modulates the behaviour of white blood cells and the inner lining of the vessels. Trials of oxygen therapy in MS patients have shown benefit especially in bladder function and balance but, because neurologists have wanted to avoid the possibility of spontaneous improvement - which is of course oxygen dependent - they have chosen to study patients who have advanced disability. Most trials have used patients with disease durations typically in excess of two years. The only trial in the history of multiple sclerosis which matched pairs of patients and then randomly allocated them to either treated or control groups, demonstrated unequivocal evidence of benefit. (p< 0.0001). Because the blood vessel barrier may not repair completely, many patients need to continue oxygen therapy on a regular basis. This is also the reason for the need to continue with beta interferon injections, which also acts by stabilising the blood-brain barrier.
Reference: Fischer BH et al. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of multiple sclerosis; a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial. New England Journal of Medicine 1983;308:181-186.
Best wishes, Philip James
MS its etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutics with emphasis on the controversial
use of HBO2
Journal Hyperbaric Medicine 1988; 3(3):143-164 Gottlieb SF, Neubauer RA.
A review of the current hypotheses in the etiology and pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis
(MS) is presented together with the implications for therapy. A new hypothesis as to
etiology is presented. Special emphasis is placed on the controversy surrounding the use
of hyperbaric oxygen in a critical analysis of the published double-blind studies and
related discussions. Emphasis placed on the predominant infective and autoimmune
hypotheses cannot be supported, either from the pathology of the disease or by the
response to treatment. It is concluded that the evidence of beneficial effects of
hyperbaric oxygen therapy, despite the use of patients with advanced disease in trials, is
very impressive, especially in chronic progressive disease. It is also concluded that there
is need for further research and that such studies should examine the effects of
hyperbaric oxygenation alone, and in combination with other therapeutic agents, in
individual patients with the methods of realtime investigation now available. Meanwhile,
based on comparative efficacy and safety, hyperbaric oxygenation is recommended for
treating early stages of MS, especially for treating cerebellar and bowel-bladder
disorders. ACTH-cortisone, antiviral agents, co-polymer 1, double-blind studies,
hyperbaric oxygen therapy, immunosuppressants, Kurtzke disability scores, MS etiology,
MS pathophysiology MS therapy, multiple sclerosis (MS), plasmapheresis. Introduction:
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classified as a demyelinating disease of the central nervous
system1 and is the most common of the demyelinating diseases. Despite over a century
of investigation MS remains one of the most frustrating diseases for patients and
physicians because there is no agreed upon etiology and there is no cure or agreed upon
therapy. Perhaps no other disease has had so many therapies proposed and had them fail
2, 3. The purpose of this article is to review some of the evidence for the etiology and
pathophysiology of MS and match the information with current therapies. Specific
attention will be directed at a critique of the basis for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) as a
new therapeutic modality for MS (summarized in Table 1). We concentrate on HBO2
because this therapeutic modality has generated an extremely emotional, as well as an
intellectual controversy, perhaps more so than any previously proposed treatment.
Conclusions: Of all the current therapies presumably based on an understanding of the
etiology and pathophysiology of the disease process, HBO2 has the soundest foundation.
It is also the safest "drug" available. It is not surprising, therefore, to find that there is
much positive evidence concerning the beneficial effects of HBO2 on cerebellar and
bowel-bladder function to sanction its use for treating MS. Based on comparative
efficacy and safety considerations, it is recommended that HBO2 be used for treating
early MS and for treating MS associated cerebellar and bowel-bladder dysfunction.
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multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1977; 2:41-48. 9. Han M. Periphlebitis retinae in
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Bennett DR, Anderson RE, Ziter F. Cranial CT appearance of acute multiple sclerosis.
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sclerosis. Neurology 1958; 8:497-499. 12. Dow RS, Berglund G. Vascular pattern of
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G. et al. Studies on regional cerebral oxygen utilization and cognitive function in multiple
sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1984; 47:1182-1191. 14. Kelly DL Jr, Lassiter
KRL, Vongsvivut A, Smith JM. Effects of hyperbaric oxygenation and tissue Oxygen
studies in experimental paraplegia.J Neurosurg 1972; 36:425-429. 15. Weiner HL. COP I
therapy for multiple sclerosis. N EngJ Med 1987; 317:442-444. 16. Waksman BH,
Reynolds WE. Multiple sclerosis as a disease of immune regulation. Proc Soc Exp Biol M Med 1984; 175:282-294. 17. Cook SD, Dowling PC. Multiple sclerosis and viruses: an overview. Neurobiology 1980; 30: 80-91. 18. Poser CM. Pathogenesis of multiple
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Kimura H. Perivascular microglial cells of the CNS are bone marrow-derived and present
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Guam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis---parkinsonism--- dementia linked to a plant excitant
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JF.Epidemiologic contributions to multiple sclerosis: an overview.Neurology 1980; 30:61
-79. 26. James PB. Evidence for subacute fat embolism as the cause of multiple
sclerosis. Lancet 1982; 1:380-385. 27. Stein EC, Schiffer RB,Jackson W. Young N.
Multiple sclerosis and the work place: report of an industry-based cluster. Neurology
1987; 37:1672-1677. 28. James PB. Oxygen for multiple sclerosis. Letter to editor.
Lancer 1983; 1:1161-1162. 29. Colover J. Oxygen for multiple sclerosis. Lancet ]983;
1:1383-1384. 30. Oppenheimer DR. Oxygen for multiple sclerosis. Letter to editor.
Lancet 1983; 11:632. 31. James PB. Oxygen for multiple sclerosis. Lancer 1987; 11:632.
32. Hassan HM. Chemistry and biochemistry of oxygen and its partially reduced
derivatives. In: Gottlieb SF, Longmuir IS, Totter JR, eds Oxygen: an in-depth study of its
pathophysiology. Bethesda, MD: Undersea Medical Society 1983:307-338. 33. McCord
JM. Superoxide radical: a link between reperfusion injury and inflammation. Adv Free
Radical Biol Med 1986; 2:325-345. 34. Kontos HA. George E Brown memorial lecture:
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Oxidants and human disease: some new concepts. FASEB J. 1987; 1:358-364. 36.
Schmit PL, Gottlieb SF. Enhancement of cortical Nat, K + -ATPase by increased oxygen
tensions: evidence of a new controlling mechanism. Brain Res 19#2; 242:271 278. 37.
Pillunat LE, Stodtmeister R. Wilmanns 1. Pressure compliance on optic nerve head in low
tension glaucoma. BrJ Opht 1987; 71:181-7. 38. Kitazawa Y. Shirato S. Yamamoto T.
Optic disc hemorrhage in low tension glaucoma. Ophthalmology 1987; 93:853-857. 39.
McDonald Wl. Attitudes to the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 1983;
40:667-670. 40. Ellison GW, Myers LW. Immunosuppressive drugs in multiple sclerosis:
pro and con. Neurology 1980; 30:28-32. 41. Johnson KP. Systemic interferon therapy for
multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 1983; 40:681682. 42. Rose AS, Kuzme JW, Kurtzke JF, et
al. Comparative study in the evaluation of therapy in multiple slerosis: ACTH vs placebo:
final report. Neurology 1970; 20:1-59. 43. MertinJ, Rudge P. Kremer M, et al.
Double-blind controlled trial of immunosuppression in the treatment of multiple sclerosis:
final report. Lancet 1982; 11:351-353. 44. Lhermitte F. Marteau R. Roullet E. Not so
benign long-term immunosuppression in multiple sclerosis. Br MedJ 1984; 28:276-277. 45.
Bornstein MB, Miller A, Slagle S. et al. A pilot trial of COP I in exacerbating-remitting MS
N EnglJ Med 1987; 317:408 414. 46. Hauser SL, Dawson DM, LehrichJR, et al.
Immunosuppression and plasmapheresis in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Arch
Neurol 1983; 40:687-690. 47. Stefoski D, Davis FA, Schauf CL. Acute improvement in
exacerbating multiple sclerosis produced by intravenous administration of mannitol. Ann
Neurol 1985; 18:443-4S0. 48. Boschetty V, Cernoch J. Aplikace kysliku za pretlaku u
nekterych neurologicy ch onemocneni. Bratisl Lek Listy 1970; 53:298-302. 49. Baixe JH.
Bilan de onze anees d'activite en medicine hyperbare. Med Aer Spatiale Med
Subaquatique Hyperbare 1978; 17:90-92. 50. Neubauer RA. Treatment of multiple
sclerosis with monoplace hyperbaric oxygenation. J Fla Med Assoc 1978; 65:101-104.
51. Neubauer RA. Exposure of multiple sclerosis patients to hyperbaric oxygen at 1.5-2..
ATA: a preliminary report. J Fla Med Assoc 1980; 67:498-S04. 52. Warren J. Sacksteder,
MR, Thuning CA. Oxygen immunosuppression: modification of experimental allergic
encephalomyelitis in rodents.J Immunol 1978; 121:315-320. 53. Powell MR, Kizer V,
Hruby S. Alvord EC Jr, Martin J. The effect of daily hyperbaric oxygen (2 ATA) on the
course of chronic relapsing murine experimental allergic encephalomy elitist In: Bove AA,
Bachrach AJ, Greebaum LJ Jr, eds. Underwater and hyperbaric physiology DE Proceedings
of the ninth international .symposium on underwater and hy perbaric physiology.
Bethesda, MD: Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, 1987: 847-857. 54. Godovkin
Dl, Zaytsev VS, Lotovin AP. Hyperbaric oxygenation as an immunity stimulus in MS. Sov
Med 1982; 12:70-75. 55. Hansborough JF, Piacentine JG, Eiseman B. Immunosuppression
by hyperbaric oxygenation. Surgery 1980; 87:662-663. 56. Warren J. Sacksteder MR,
Thuning CA. Modification of allergic encephalomvelitis in guinea pigs by oxygen therapy.
Fed Proc 1977; 36:1298. 57. James PB, Hills BA. Micro-embolism multiple sclerosis and
the perivenous syndrome. Lancet 1988, in press. 58. Neubauer RA. The effect of
hyperbaric oxygen in prolonged coma. Possible identification of marginally functioning
brain zones. Med Subacquea Iperbarica 1985; 5:7S-79. 59. Myers RAM, chairman.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a committee report. Bethesda, MD: UHMS, 1986. 60. Frey G.
Lampl L, Scherb W. HBO2 versus ACTH in multiple sclerosis--an alternative treatment!
Federal Republic of Germany: Federal Armed Forces Hospital, 1984. 61. Davis JC.
Hyperbaric oxygen for patients with multiple sclerosis. Letters to the editor. Br Med J
Topic: Are there any long term benefits for MS patients receiving HBO2?
Only long-term controlled studies have shown persistent benefit of HBO2 for MS. A very
recent publication has endorsed their findings and concludes that HBO treatment should
be instigated as soon as the condition is diagnosed and before irreversible lesions have
become established. - Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis with Prolonged courses of
Hyperbaric Oxygen: A 13 year Update - Perrins D.J.D. & James P.B. In Proc. 12th
International Congress on Hyperbaric Med. Sept 1996, Best Publishing Company ISBN:
0-941332-63-2. The Permutter Hyperbaric Centre and MS Therapy. I have been involved
in the controversy over the use of more oxygen for MS patients since 1981. It would be
difficult to find a more convincing reason for increasing the oxygen dosage than in the
disease process which underlies the formation of the scars. It begins as an acute
swelling around veins in the nervous system and this process can be observed directly in
many patients during acute attacks in the retina. The dispute over the etiology of the
disease between the proponents of a vascular basis and the rest e.g. autoimmunity,
goes back to the 1860's. (Rindfleisch and Charcot) but the evidence of blood vessel
involvement is consistently ignored. Ian McDonald - who has just retired as Professor of
Neurology at the National Hospital in London stated in 1986. "The occurrence of vascular
lesions in an unmyelinated region (the retina) provides support for the view that the
vascular changes in multiple sclerosis are primary and not as some have suggested
secondary to myelin breakdown." Optic Neuritis. eds Hess RF, Plant GT. Cambridge
University Press 1986 p47. ISBN 0 521 30247 1. Multiple and sclerosis describe the
presence of scarring in the CNS - the end result of the attempts of the nervous system
to heal. The trials of the use of oxygen at addtional pressure selected patients whose
disease durations were typically 15 years. This is nonsense as magnetic resonance
spectroscopy has demonstrated lack of oxygen in the areas affected at the onset.
(Lancet 1991;337:58). However if the patient has only one area affected then they do
not have MULTIPLE areas of sclerosis and must wait a minimum of a month to qualify
under the "diagnostic criteria" for multiple sclerosis. The neurologists response to the
evidence from the controlled studies of oxygen therapy was less than enthusiastic,
despite positive findings in patients with end stage disease. It is necessary to study
history to understand the powerful factors that shape medical opinion and there is no
better starting point than the story of Semmelweiss and the controlled trial related to
the etiology of childbed fever in Vienna. I will be posting an article about the Fischer
trial from the New England journal of Medicine on the list soon, but if you want an object
lesson in medical prejudice read the isssue of the journal that carried the results - Jan 27
1983 vol 308 and the editorials. Philip James, Wolfson Hyperbaric Medicine Unit. 1.
Fischer BH, Marks M, Reich T. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatment of multiple sclerosis: A
randomised, placebo controlled, double-blind study. N Engl J Med 1983;308:181-6. (This
is a classic). 2. Pallotta R, Longobardi G, Fabbrocini G. Experience in protracted
follow-up on a group of multiple sclerosis patients periodically treated with hyperbaric
oxygen therapy. In Baixe J-H, ed. Symposium sur le traitment de la sclerosse multiple par
l'oxygene hyperbare. Paris, 1986; 15-19. (22 relapsing/remitting patients were followed
for 8 years. The incidence of relapses fell dramatically in the 11 treated patients and
increased in the 11 controls.) 3. Oriani G, Barbieri S, Pirovani C, Mariani C. Hyperbaric
oxygen in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind,
randomised study with evoked potentials evaluation. In: Oriani G, Proc. 13th annual
meeting of the European Undersea Biomedical Society. Palermo:1987 196-203 (44
patients with low disability scores. 22 treated once a week for a year and compared with
22 controls when there was an appreciable difference in outcome - P < 0.01.)
N Engl J Med 1983 Jan 27;308(4):181-6
Hyperbaric-oxygen treatment of multiple sclerosis. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.
Fischer BH, Marks M, Reich T.
Several uncontrolled studies have suggested a beneficial effect of hyperbaric oxygen on multiple sclerosis. We studied 40 patients with advanced chronic multiple sclerosis who were randomly divided into two matching groups. The experimental group received pure oxygen, and the placebo group received a mixture of 10 per cent oxygen and 90 per cent nitrogen; both groups were treated at a pressure of 2 atmospheres absolute for 90 minutes once daily, for a total of 20 exposures. Objective improvement occurred in 12 of 17 patients treated with hyperbaric oxygen and in 1 of 20 patients treated with placebo (P less than 0.0001). Improvement was transient in seven of the patients treated with oxygen and long-lasting in five. Those with less severe forms of the disease had a more favorable and lasting response. At one year of follow-up, deterioration was noticed in 2 patients (12 per cent) in the oxygen group, neither of whom had had an initial response, and in 11 patients (55 per cent) in the placebo group, one
Publication Types: Clinical Trial, Randomized Controlled Trial, PMID: 6336824
Christopher has asked me to respond to your questions about the use of HBOT
in the UK for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. I will do my best.
There are approximately 60 centres in the UK offering HBOT for MS and over
the last 20 years, between them have carried out in excess of 1.3 million
treatments. The Federation of MS Therapy Centres has monitored the results
from these centres and produced a report entitled "The Experience of
Treating Multiple Sclerosis with Prolonged Courses of Hyperbaric Oxygen"(DR
D Perrins & Dr Philip James). The report is not a double blind study, but
follows the fate of 703 patients over a course of 10 to 13 years (too long
for a double blind I think!). The study assessed the Kurtzke Disability
Scale (KDS) of the patients and the severity of their symptoms. This was
compared to the known natural history of the disease.
Although there is a wide variation in the rate and pattern of decline, the
majority of patients deteriorate over a two year period of observation. In
this series the Relapsing/Remitting patients who had less than two follow on
treatments after the initial course had deteriorated by 2.0 on the KDS after
10+ years, while those who received more than 400 had deteriorated by only
1.1. This represents a difference of being able to walk without assistance
and the need to use two sticks, or the ability to walk 200 yards and being
confined to a wheelchair.
The most frequently reported symtpoms to improve with the continued use oh
HBOT were fatigue, speech, bladder control and balance.
From my own experience of seeing patients benefit from this treatement, I
(and the patients) am convinced of its effectiveness.
Our protocol in the UK is an initial course of 18 to 20 one hour treatments
over 4 to 6 weeks, commencing at 1.5 ATA and increasing to 1.75 or 2.0 ATA.
Most patients then continue with 1 one hour treatment per week, without end.
Studies you can refer to include:
Fischer et al. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis, A
randomised, placebo comtrolled, double blind study. New England Journal of
Oriani et al. Hyperbaric Oxygen in Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis:
a placebo controlled, double blind, randomised study with evoked potentials
evaluation. Proceedings of the 13th annual meeting of the European Undersea
Biomedical Society, Palermo 1987
Palotta et al. Experience in protracted follow-up on a group of Multiple
Sclerosis patients periodically treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Symposium sur le traitment de la sclerose multiple par l'oxygene hyperbare.
Barnes et al. Hyperbaric oxygen and multiple sclerosis; short term results
of a placebo comtrolled double blind trail. The Lancet 1985 and Hyperbaric
oxygen and Multiple sclerosis: final results of a placebo controlled double
blind study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1987
Neubauer. Magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis following
hyperbaric oxygen. First Swiss Symposium on hyperbaric medicine 1986 &
Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis with monoplace hyperbaric oxygenation.
Journal of the Florida Medical Association 1978.
Gottlieb and Neubauer. Multiple Sclerosis: Its etiology, pathogenesis and
therapeutics with emphasis on the controversial ose of HBO. Journal of
Hyperbaric Medicine 1988.
The last paper concludes "Of all the current therapies presumably based on
an understanding of the etiology and pathphysiology of the disease process,
HBOT has the soundest foundation. It is also the safest drug available. It
is not surprising therefore to find that there is much positive evidendce
concerning the beneficial effects of HBOT on cerebellar and bowel bladder
function to sanction its use for treating MS. Based on comparative efficacy
and safety considerations, it is recommended that HBOT be used for treating
early MS and for treating MS associated cerebellar and bowel bladder
There are, of course, more than this, but surely its time to stop arguing
the case and get as many MS people into HBO chambers as we can!
The Sussex MS Treatment Centre
Ronnie Lane was a bassist for the rock band Faces, which also featured Rod
Stewart. What follows is an excerpt from a 1983 interview with Mr. Lane, an
MS sufferer, in which he recounts the experiences of Bo Fischer, often
referenced by Dr. James.
Mr. Lane from MS complications in I think 1997.
LANE: Oh, yeah!! The MS Society, they've got it all sewn up, and they don't
want anybody else in there, you know? Oh, I could tell you some very
strange stories! I mean, let me tell you this story: You know this HBO,
this Hyperbaric Oxygen treatment, (has) basically saved my life-- mentally,
for me, because I had no energy. I couldn't speak, at one stage. I ,
certainly, didn't have any energy to exercise, or anything, until I took
oxygen under pressure. The MS Society have pooh-hood hyperbaric oxygen, and
put it aside and said, "it's dangerous, it's brain damage..." It's only
oxygen under pressure!! It's not a drug! I mean, they say that steroids are
all right, and things like that, which (makes raspberry) blow you up to
look like a hamster and all that. But, this oxygen under pressure is
'DANGEROUS', all of a sudden. I know THAT is absolute nonsense, and it's
what I want to put about.
The MS society hired a doctor Fischer, back in the Seventies, to prove ,
once and for all, that hyperbaric oxygen is no use, whatsoever, to people
with MS He worked on it for some years, and he couldn't do it. His report
came out in FAVOR of the hyperbaric oxygen! They asked him to go back and
write his report again. THREE TIMES they sent him back to rewrite his
report! The last time he finished it was in 1980-- while I was still
walkin' about. Ordinarily, I might add. They didn't rush-release the report
at all, because it was in FAVOR of HBO. In actual fact, it was only
released early this year, 1983! Meanwhile, I've become crippled, y'see?
They've dismantled his oxygen chamber. It's now in a car park in New York!
He could not prove that oxygen was no good. He could only prove that it is
of some help. Don't get me wrong, it's not a cure. But, it's of great
assistance for someone to keep it under control, and to live with it kind
of ordinarily, y'know? Lead a bit of a life, instead of gradually becoming
crippled all of the time. Anyway, that's a story about the MS Society, and
it's not a very nice story. Not a very nice story at all, but it happens to
be the case.
And I think it's disgusting, ya know?
DAVE: Did the tour get enough money to open your own Hyperbaric chamber?
LANE: Well, we did, but my point is that we can't do it in America like we
can over here. You see, we can open up our own chamber over here, where you
just breathe pure oxygen through a mask. And, your relatives can learn to
operate the chamber. But you won't be able to do that in America. The other
(system) is where you don't need a mask, the whole chamber is full of pure
oxygen (under pressure). There, you're talkin' about a BOMB, so you've got
to have trained, proper technicians to run it. What I hope to do is to get
something called an NMR scanner. Nuclear Magnetic Response (sic), would you
believe? That is kind of an x-ray, but it's not an x-ray. But, it's such a
fine instrument that it can actually take a picture of your nerves. What I
aim to do is to get someone with MS and get them under this NMR scanner,
and then put them through the (HBO) treatment, and then take a picture of
them after. (It's) to prove it, once and for all, that HBO does help. It's
not a cure, but it DOES help. I don't know. We've got a long way to go.
DAVE: What would the main obstacle be in the States, then?
LANE: Finding the people, I suppose. I don't know how to find the people.
Y'see, ARMS over here was CREATED by people with MS that got SO FRUSTRATED
at this whole attitude towards MS-- You know, this sort of, "Well, you've
got an incurable disease now. You're going to get crippled for the REST of
your life, but just sit back and accept it. We've got a nice wheelchair for
you out in the hall, and everything's going to be rosy. Don't make a panic,
you'll upset everyone." You know what I mean?! That's what you're given. So
they created ARMS, 'Action RESEARCH into Multiple Sclerosis', to try and
get some absolute answers, because we got fed up. Horrible thing to say,
this is, but I'm gonna say it-- It strikes me that, in a lot of cases, MS
is the bread ticket for a lot of so-called "Societies" and, without it,
they'd be out of a job. You know what I mean? Which makes me wonder about
cancer and leukemia, y'know? I wonder. I mean, I've seen it and I know that
is the case with MS, so what's happening with cancer and leukemia?
Here are Medline sources for randomized controlled studies on multiple sclerosis and hyperbaric oxygen.
Best regards, Mike Lepawsky
Medline Search for: "Multiple sclerosis" AND "Hyperbaric Oxygen" Randomized Controlled Trials
1: Barnes MP, Bates D, Cartlidge NE, French JM, Shaw DA.
Hyperbaric oxygen and multiple sclerosis: final results of a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1987 Nov;50(11):1402-6.
PMID: 3320274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2: Maillard P, Clanet M, Bourdiol AM, Arne JL.
[Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the visual evoked potentials of patients with multiple sclerosis]
Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr. 1987 Jan;87(1):43-5. French. No abstract available.
PMID: 3301038 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3: Confavreux C, Mathieu C, Chacornac R, Aimard G, Devic M.
[Ineffectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in multiple sclerosis. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study]
Presse Med. 1986 Sep 6;15(28):1319-22. French.
PMID: 2950392 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4: Harpur GD, Suke R, Bass BH, Bass MJ, Bull SB, Reese L, Noseworthy JH, Rice GP, Ebers GC.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in chronic stable multiple sclerosis: double-blind study.
Neurology. 1986 Jul;36(7):988-91.
PMID: 3520382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
5: Wiles CM, Clarke CR, Irwin HP, Edgar EF, Swan AV.
Hyperbaric oxygen in multiple sclerosis: a double blind trial.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986 Feb 8;292(6517):367-71.
PMID: 3080173 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6: Wood J, Stell R, Unsworth I, Lance JW, Skuse N.
A double-blind trial of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Med J Aust. 1985 Sep 16;143(6):238-40.
PMID: 3897808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7: Neiman J, Nilsson BY, Barr PO, Perrins DJ.
Hyperbaric oxygen in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: visual evoked potentials and clinical effects.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1985 Jun;48(6):497-500.
PMID: 3891920 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8: Barnes MP, Bates D, Cartlidge NE, French JM, Shaw DA.
Hyperbaric oxygen and multiple sclerosis: short-term results of a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.
Lancet. 1985 Feb 9;1(8424):297-300.
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